APA Citation

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Note: The reference list should be double spaced, and the references should have hanging indents.




APA: Print Sources




Journal Article (volume only)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date~). Article name. Journal Name, volume, page range.


Alexander, S., & Ruderman, M. (1987). The role of procedural and distributive justice in organizational behavior. Social Justice Research, 1, 177-198.


Journal Article (volume and issue)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Article name. Journal Name, volume(issue), page range.


Early, P. C. (1986). Trust, perceived importance of praise and criticism, and work performance: An examination of feedback in the United States and England. Journal of Management, 12(4), 457-473.


Newspaper Article


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year, month day). Article name. Newspaper Name, p (or pp). page number, page range, or all page numbers separated by commas (if discontinuous).


Warrick, J. (2008, March 30). U.S. cites big gains against Al-Qaeda. Washington Post, p. A1.


Article in an Edited Book


Author, A. A. (year). Article name. In B. B. Editor & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Book name (pp. page range). Place: Publisher.


Greenberg, J. (1986). The distributive justice of organizational performance evaluations. In H. W. Bierhoff, R. L. Cohen, & J. Greenberg (Eds.), Justice in social relations (pp. 337-351). New York: Plenum Press.


Article in an Edited Book (one volume of a multivolume work)


Author, A. A. (year). Article name. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book name (Vol. #, pp. page range). Place: Publisher.


Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.


Book (editor, no author, edition other than the first)


Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Book name (Nth ed.). Place: Publisher.


Heyel, C. (Ed.). (1973). The encyclopedia of management (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinbold.


Issue Briefs, Working Papers, and Other Corporate Documents (institutional/corporate author)


Institution/Corporation. (date). Title (Report No. xxx). Place: Publisher.


Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992, February). Sources of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No. 123). Washington, DC: Author.


Paper Presentation


Presenter, A. A. (date). Title. Paper presented at the meeting of the Organization Name, Place.


Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL.


Unpublished Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses


Author, A. A. (date). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Place.


Van Zee, G. R. (1990). The life of the peasant class in Renaissance England (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.


Boleman, J. M. (1989). The human animal: The unbreakable chain between mother and child (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.


Doctoral Dissertations abstracted in DAI

Author, A. A. (date). Title of doctoral dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume(issue), page.


Appelbaum, L. G. (2005). Three studies of human information processing: Texture amplification, motion representation, and figure-ground segregation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65(10), 5428.




~Usually just the year, but could also be year, month day (e.g., 1987, November 11) or year, month (e.g., 1987, November)





APA: Electronic Sources




Non-Periodical Web Document


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date~). Document name. Retrieved from URL~~


Barclay, L. (2002). The paradox of “justice” formalization: When procedures erode perceptions of fairness. Retrieved from http://frontiers.sauder.ubc.ca/Laurie_2002.pdf


Journal Article Found on the Web (DOI~~~ assigned, volume and issue)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Article name. Journal Name, volume(issue), page range. doi: string of numbers and/or letters


Hubbell, A. P., & Chory-Assad, R. M. (2005). Motivating factors: Perceptions of justice and their relationship with managerial and organizational trust. Communication Studies, 56(1), 47-70. doi: 10.1080/0008957042000332241


Journal Article Found on the Web (DOI~~~ assigned, more than 7 authors, volume only)


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, G. G. (date). Article name. Journal Name, volume, page range. doi: string of numbers and/or letters


Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A. M., Adam, N., Adamovova, L., Ahn, C., Ahn, H., . . . McCrae, R. R. (2005, October 7). National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science, 310, 96–100. doi: 10.1126/science.1117199


Journal Article Found on the Web (DOI not assigned, volume and issue)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Article name. Journal Name, volume(issue), page range. Retrieved from home page URL


Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000, February). Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(2), 119-127. Retrieved from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/57/2/119


Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap


Journal Article Found on the Web (advance online publication)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Article name. Journal Name. Advance online publication. doi: string of numbers and/or letters


Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141


Journal Article Found on the Web (DOI not assigned, in press)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (in press). Article name. Journal Name. Retrieved from URL


Shanahan, M. (in press). Perception as abduction: Turning sensor data into meaningful representation. Cognitive Science. Retrieved from http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/kuipers/readings/Shanahan-cogsci-05.pdf


Lecture Notes Found on the Web (PowerPoint slides)


Author, A. A. (year). Lecture name [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Web site Name: URL


Perry, J. L. (2006). Biological psychology [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Department of Psychology Web site: http://www.psych.umn.edu/courses/spring06/gewirtzj/psy5061/n19bdrugabuse506106.pdf


Online dictionary


Looked-up Word. (n.d.). In Dictionary name. Retrieved from URL


Abuse. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/


Wiki**


Entry name. (n.d.). Retrieved Month day, year, from Wikipedia (or The ______ Wiki): URL


Substance abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2008, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substance_abuse




~Usually just the year, but could also be year, month day (e.g., 1987, November 11) or year, month (e.g., 1987, November)

~~When a reference in APA or Chicago ends with a URL or a DOI (see below), do not use a final period.

~~~A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique string of numbers and/or letters given to a journal article or other document. This number indicates a permanent location and can replace a URL (when available). This number may be lurking beneath a button labeled "Article," "Cross-Ref," "PubMed," or with another full-text database name.

*If a DOI is assigned, instead of "Retrieved from URL," use "Retrieved doi: string of numbers and/or letters"

**References of this type include Wikipedia or one of the subject wikis (i.e., the Rochester Wiki)




Notes




1. The reference list should be double spaced, and the references should have hanging indents.

2. For electronic sources, with the exception of obscure books and articles delivered by electronic databases, database names are no longer necessary.

3. For electronic sources, retrieval dates are no longer necessary with books and journal articles in their final form.